Researchers from the UNC School of Medicine have found evidence to suggest that patients with cystic fibrosis possess a much greater number of the proteins that forms mucus, known as mucins.
Associate professor at the department of pathology and laboratory medicine, Dr. Mehmet Kesimer, explains what cystic fibrosis, or CF, is and what it can do.
“Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening genetic disease that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system,” says Dr. Kesimer. “People with CF have a defective gene, and its protein product causes the body to produce abnormally thick and sticky mucus. That is a problem in the lungs; they cannot clear the mucus very well. That is the life-threatening part of the cystic fibrosis.”
With over 70 thousand people across the globe suffering from this disease, UNC researchers have found that the increased amount of mucins the body produces within patients with cystic fibrosis prevents the mucus from clearing through the lungs, which builds and creates inflammation infection, and lung failure. However, if this increased amount of mucins can be reduced, then there is a greater opportunity for better treatments.
“Our study offers simple therapeutic strategies for treating CF lung disease,” explains Kesimer, “for instance, diluting mucins in the mucus layer by simply hydrating agents.”
Using “nebulized hypertonic saline,” a type of sterile salty water, can improve the hydration of the CF airways in order to help in the patient’s mucus clearance to increase lung function. Utilizing these sorts of solutions for patients can provide a much better means of treatment to reduce risk of the mucus build-up.http://chapelboro.com/news/health/cystic-fibrosis-patients-possess-increased-mucin-numbers/
CHAPEl HILL – Mary Willingham says her research privileges at UNC have been revoked.
Multiple media outlets report that Willingham has been asked to re-apply for research privileges by the Institutional Review Board. She says she plans to do so.
Willingham was quoted in a CNN article January 8 as saying there is an alarming number of illiterate student athletes at UNC. The University released data Thursday afternoon that disputes the claims in the CNN article.http://chapelboro.com/news/unc/mary-willingham-research-privileges-suspended/
DURHAM – Researchers at Duke University continue to develop new technologies with versatile uses.
Associate Research Professor at Duke, Daniel Marks, says his team has been working for several years on a new kind of camera.
“My main project right now actually is to build giga-pixel cameras, we have been almost four years into a project and what we do is make really high resolution, really wide angle instruments so we can for instance image an entire football field to two or three millimeters resolution” Marks says.
This new giga-pixel camera uses complex optics and hundred of micro-camera to create a wide-angle snapshot. Other cameras have had pictures that are a giga-pixel in size, but Marks says the most unique feature to their camera is that it is all one snapshot.
“What we have aimed to do is, our camera literally takes a snapshot, and it’s a single giga-pixel image, currently it’s about a tenth of a second so you really see a single instant in time” Marks states.
Their newest camera was built only a few months ago and has a 100 degree by 30 degree camera angle. The giga-pixel camera research is currently funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency with the intention to help protect soldiers in the field and identify threats from afar. Marks says they took this into consideration when designing camera to take wide-angle photographs.
“It became likely to be used for terrestrial imaging, for imaging on the ground, and if you have a wide-angle camera you find out your mostly taking pictures of the sky and ground so it doesn’t really make sense to have a vertical field of view that’s really large” Marks says.
Currently, in a test done with the camera, Marks found that their camera can see boats five times farther away than the ones the military uses. The research being done on this camera can be useful for many other applications as well. The camera has potential uses in sporting games, but Marks says some of the optical design in the giga-pixel camera can benefit telescopes and help further other academic research.
“I think there would be applications for astronomy, I think versions of this are possible that would greatly increase the amount of sky we can survey, and therefore not just for looking for dangerous objects, but also for interesting science” Marks says.
Marks and his team have tested out this camera at the Duke vs. UNC football game and produced some high quality pictures available online.
To view the pictures Daniel Marks has take with his camera click here.
For more information click here.http://chapelboro.com/news/higher-education/duke-research-produces-new-camera-100x-stronger/
CHAPEL HILL – Researchers at the University Of North Carolina School Of Medicine have discovered a possible cause of autism.
A key group of enzymes, called topoisomerases, can have profound effect on the genetic factors behind brain development. Associate professor in the Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Mark Zylka, says that these enzymes work to help keep DNA normal during developing times in a child’s life.
“These are enzymes that are called topoismerases, we like to think of them as the scissors and glue for DNA,” Zylka said “so DNA is a molecule that often gets tangled up inside of cells, and to relieve these tangles, these enzymes can cut the DNA, untangle it, and glue it back together.”
When topoisomerase inhibitors are present it may limit what genes are “untangled.” Zylka said that he found when these inhibitors are present long genes and genes related to autism are the most affected.
“So what we found was that these enzymes seem to play a very important role in neurons in the brain, these are brain cells, and in particular these enzymes seem to be important for allowing genes that are very long to be expressed, and in particular a large number of genes that have been linked to autism spectrum disorders” Zylka said.
These inhibitors that affect the enzyme topoisomerases are known to exist in chemo-therapeutic drugs and have been around for over 40 years. It was while studying these drugs that Zylka first began to study the effect the inhibitors would have on neurons. Zylka says they noticed that the drugs had effects on long genes, and that autism genes are also very long.
“So that’s when we sort of put two and two together and realized that inhibiting these enzymes could have a profound effect brain development” Zylka stated.
Discovering these enzyme inhibitors can lead to new discoveries for autism and diagnosing what exactly is happening. Zylka says that he thinks studying these inhibitors can help us identify what in nature may have inhibitors like these that could cause autism.
“We found that if you inhibit these enzymes, the expression of a lot of very long genes is impaired and so a lot of these genes are autism genes,” Zylka said “and so we think this could be used as a way to diagnose or to identify other factors or chemicals in the environment with similar effects.”
Currently the known inhibitors that Zylka is studying are in Chemo-therapeutic drugs and would only affect cancer patients that are going through Chemo-therapy.http://chapelboro.com/news/health/unc-researchers-find-possible-cause-for-autism/